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Sunday, October 31, 2010

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Saturday, October 30, 2010

Impact on the environment of organic solar cells evaluated

PharmaLive.com, 20 sept., 2010)-solar energy could be a central alternative to petroleum-based energy production. However, the current technology of solar cells often does not produce the same energy performance and is more expensive to progress. In addition, information about the total production of solar energy on the environment are incomplete, say experts.

To better understand the power and benefits for the environment and the disadvantages of solar energy, Rochester Institute of Technology research team conducted a first organic solar cells .the life cycle assessments ' study revealed that the intrinsic energy - or the total energy required to make a product - is less than conventional inorganic devices organic solar cells.

"This analysis provides a detailed assessment of the amount of energy needed in the manufacture of organic solar cell, which has a significant impact on the cost and environmental impact of technology, explains Brian Landi, Assistant Professor of chemical engineering at RIT and an advisor to the faculty on the project."

"Organic solar cells are light and flexible, and they have the promise of low-cost solution treatment which can have benefits for the previous generation technologies that use mostly inorganic semiconductor materials manufacturing" adds Annick Anctil, lead researcher on the study and a fourth-year PhD PhD candidate of ITL sustainability. ""However, previous evaluations of energy and the environmental impact of the technology were incomplete and broader analysis is necessary in order to better assess the overall impact of the production and use.

Study to calculate the total energy consumption and environmental impact of collection materials, manufacturing, mass production and use organic solar cells in a comprehensive evaluation of the technology life cycle.

According to Anctil, previous life-cycle assessments had not included a present individual materials in a solar cell component by component breakdown organic or a calculation of the recovery of the total energy of the device, which is defined as the energy produced from its use in the energy required for the manufacture of the cell.

The team found that, compared to inorganic cells, organic solar cells energy recovery time was more faible.Les studies underway to determine the stability of the device are always justified, however.

"Produced data will help potential manufacturers and designers better assess how to use and improve technology and analyze its feasibility in other solar energy technologies and alternative energy," adds Landi.

The team presented the results at the Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers 2010 photovoltaic specialists Conférence.Anctil, who won a student conference for the best search, hope also analyze environmental solar with additional other types of solar cell technology lifecycle assessments cell development.

The study was funded by the Department of energy of the United States and also included Golisano Institute of RIT researchers for Sustainability and NanoPower research laboratories.

Source of the story:

The story above is reproduced (with drafting adaptations by PharmaLive.com staff) to materials provided by Rochester Institute of Technology.

Note: If no author is given, the source is cited for this.


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Friday, October 29, 2010

Mimicking nature, water-based 'artificial leaf' produces electricity

PharmaLive.com (24 September 2010) - a team led by a researcher at the University of North Carolina State showed that the basis of water - gel solar devices – "artificial leaves" - can act as solar cells to generate electricity. The results prove the concept for the manufacture of solar cells more imitation of nature. They also have the potential to be cheaper and more environmentally friendly than the current flagship: silicon solar cells.

Folding devices are composed of freezing brewed with light-sensitive water molecules - the researchers have used the chlorophyll factory in one of the experiments - coupled with materials carbon-Coated electrodes as graphite.Les light-sensitive molecules or carbon nanotubes get "excited" by the rays of the Sun to generate electricity, similar to the factory of molecules that if excited to synthesize sugars to grow, says Dr. Orlin Velev State NC, Professor of Invista of chemical and Biomolecular Engineering and the primary author of an article published online in the journal of chemistry documents describing this new generation of solar cells.

Velev says that the research team wants to "learn imitate materials which harnesses solar nature".Bien synthetic light-sensitive molecules can be used, naturally produced said Velev derivatives - such as chlorophyll - are also easily integrated in these devices due to their water gel matrix.

Now that they have experienced the concept, Velev says researchers work to refine water-based photovoltaic devices making it more like real leaves.

"The next step is to imitate mechanisms regenerate found in plants", explains Velev. " The other challenge is to change the water-based gel and to improve the efficiency of solar cells light-sensitive molecules. »

Velev imagines a future where roofs could be covered with soft sheets producing similar artificial electricity leaves solar cells.

"We don't want overpromise at this stage, the devices are still relatively low efficiency and there is a long way to go before it can become a practical technology," said Velev. "However, we believe that the concept of "soft" biologically inspired to produce electricity devices may in the future provide an alternative technology in the solid state today.»

Researchers at the laboratory research of the air force and Chung-Ang University in Korea co-author of the study.The study was funded by the air force research laboratory and the U.S. Department of Energy.The work is part of the universitywide Nanotechnology Nano@NC State NC State program.

State of the NC Department of chemical and Biomolecular Engineering is part of the College of engineering at the University.

Source of the story:

The story above is reproduced (with drafting adaptations by PharmaLive.com staff) of materials supplied by North Carolina State University.

Reference of the review:

Hyung-Koo, Taï Chang, Joseph M. Slocik, Rajesh r. Naik, d. Orlin Velev Suk Jun.Aqueous soft matter basis of photovoltaic devices .Journal chemistry of materials, 2011; DOI: 10.1039/c0jm01820a

Note: If no author is given, the source is cited for this.


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Thursday, October 28, 2010

Jeans blue and dye ink molecules can lead to more efficient solar cells

PharmaLive.com (4 July 2010) - researchers from Cornell University have discovered a simple process - using molecules commonly used in blue jeans and dye ink - for the construction of an organic framework which could lead to the economical, flexible and versatile solar cells.

The discovery is reported in the journal nature chemistry.

Signs of heavy Silicon today is effective, but they can also be expensive and difficult to manier.La search alternatives, William Dichtel, Assistant Professor of chemistry and chemical biology and Eric l. Spitler, a National Science Foundation u.s. competitiveness in postgraduate chemistry at Cornell, employed a strategy which uses dye molecules organic assembled into a structure called a covalent organic framework (COF). Organic long been recognized as having the potential to create the thin and flexible and devices photovoltaic low-cost, but it proved difficult to organise their reliable component molecules in ordered structures likely to maximize the performance of the aircraft.

"We had to develop a completely new way to make materials in General," said Dichtel. The strategy uses a simple acid catalyst and relatively stable molecules called catechols protected organic key in a two-dimensional sheet carefully ordered to assemble molecules. These stack on top of each other to form a network that offers ways to move through the material load.

The reaction is also reversible, allowing errors in the process to be canceled and corrected. "Whole system is constantly forming structures evil alongside correct," said Dichtel, "but the correct structure is stable, if later, more perfect structures eventually dominant."The result is a structure with large surface maintains its precise and predictable molecular ordering on a large scale.

The researchers used x-ray diffraction to confirm the molecular structure and surface measurements to determine the porosity of the material.

At the heart of the framework are molecules called phthalocyanines, a class of common industrial dyes used in products of blue jeans encre.Phtalocyanines pens are also closely linked in the structure of chlorophyll plants compound that absorbs the sunlight for photosynthesis.Compounds absorb almost all solar spectrum - a rare property for a single organic material.

«More organic materials used in electronics, there is a combination of certain design to get the equipment works fairly well, and there is a bit of an element of chance, "said Dichtel.»"We are trying to remove as much of this element of chance as possible".

The structure itself is not a solar cell, but it is a model that will allow to considerably expand the scope of materials that can be used in the COFs Dichtel, said."We also hope to take advantage of their structural fundamental scientific questions on the movement of electrons through organic materials accuracy."

Once the frame is assembled, the pores between the molecular lattice could potentially be filled with another organic material to form a solar cell light, flexible, very effective and easy - to-manufacturing .the ' next step is to begin testing ways to fill the gaps with complementary molecules.

Source of the story:

The story above is reproduced (with drafting adaptations by staff at PharmaLive.com) materials provided by Cornell University, via EurekAlert!, a service of AAAS.

Reference of the review:

Spitler, Eric l., William r. Dichtel.Acid forming Covalent phthalocyanine two-dimensional organic frameworks-catalyzed Lewis .Chimie nature, 2010; DOI: 10.1038/nchem.695

Note: If no author is given, the source is cited for this.


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Plastic solar cell life jumps hours to 8 months

PharmaLive.com (June 25, 2010) - a team of researchers from the University of Alberta and the national Institute for nanotechnology extended life operating solar cell plastic non-sealed mere hours to eight months.

Development an inexpensive technology available plastic solar cell research groups struck a wall due to a problem of leeching chemical in the body of the chemical coating on electrode prototype.Un was unstable and migrated by the circuit of the cell.

Team led by researcher in chemistry and the Inn David Rider, developed a more durable polymer, coating of electrode electrodes are essential to the objective of a solar power cell extraction technology.

Prior to the breakthrough polymer solar cell research team plastic coating could not operate at high capacity for about ten hours.

When rider, and paper magazine, advanced functional materials co presented research sponsors their plastic solar cell had done high capacity for 500 heures.Mais he kept working for another seven months .the ' team, explains the unit finally stopped working when it was damaged in transit between laboratories.

Research collaboration by Jillian Buriak, Michael j. Brett Rider, rider at the University of Alberta and the national Institute for nanotechnology colleagues is published on 22 June in the journal of advanced functional materials.

Source of the story:

Story above is reproduced (with drafting adaptations by staff at PharmaLive.com) material provided by the University of Alberta, by EurekAlert!, a service of AAAS.

Reference of the review:

David a. rider, Brian J...Worfolk, Kenneth d. Harris, Lalany Abeed, Kevin Shahbazi, Michael d. Fleischauer, Michael j. Brett, Jillian M. Buriak.Stable inverted polymer/Fullerene Solar Cells to PEDOT: PSS Cationic polythiophene cathodic interface modification. Advanced functional materials, 2010; DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201000304

Note: If no author is given, the source is cited for this.


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Wednesday, October 27, 2010

Solar Power Design Manual

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It does rain or beautiful, researchers find new ways to predict major photovoltaic power output

PharmaLive.com (28 sept., 2010)-Sandia National Laboratories researchers have developed a new system to control how the clouds affect power large scale solar photovoltaic (PV). Observing clouds, size and traffic, the system provides a means for utility companies to predict and prepare for fluctuations in power due to weather changes. Models to provide public carriers with valuable data to assess the potential locations of powerhouse, ramp rate and output power.

Sandia Researchers currently concentrating solar farm 1.2 MW la Ola, on the island of Lana' (i) the Hawaiian.The Ola is large solar energy of the State system and can produce enough energy to provide up to 30% of electric demand advanced Island, which is one of the highest rates of penetration of solar PV power monde.Comprendre variability in a large-scale plant is essential to ensure that the output power is reliable and exit ramp rates remain manageable.

As solar continues to develop and take a greater percentage of grids throughout the country, being able to provide electricity production will become more and more critical,"said Chris Lovvorn, Director of energy replacement for the Castle & Cooke Resorts, LLC, which owns 98 per cent of the island."Sandia participation and an overview has been invaluable in our efforts to meet 100% of the energy needs of the island with renewable resources.

The effects of clouds on small arrays of PV are well documented, but there is little research on large-scale charts how interact and operates under the nuageuse.Un cover small system can be completely covered by cloud, which dramatically reduces power output, but what is less well understood is that happens when only a part of a large system is covered by a shadow moving clouds, while the rest remains in the light of the Sun.

"Our goal is to get to the point where we can predict what will happen at larger scale plants they move hundreds of mégawatts.Pour do, you need the data, and the opportunity has been available to the Ola says Sandia researcher Scott Kuszmaul.".

The high penetration of PV power Lana'i, combined with the mixture of Sun and clouds on the Ola 10 acres, plant provides an optimal environment for prediction and modelling research. Research could not interfere with the operations of the plant, which currently sells power to Maui Electric Company, MECO), connected Sandia engineers 24 small sensors intrusive signs PV plant and used a radio frequency transmission sensor reporting network took readings at intervals of one second to provide researchers detail unprecedented on the direction of clouds and the activity of the coverage.

A radio frequency transmission system has the advantage of being portable."Currently, a utilities company who wants to build a large-scale solar PV power plant may have many questions about the output of the plant and variability on a proposed site."Work carried out at the factory of the Ola is leading to new approaches that can potentially be used to answer these questions, "says Sandia researcher Josh Stein." ""These techniques allow a developer to place a network of sensors on site proposed measures for a period of time and used to predict the plant output variability.»

The Ola was commissioned in December 2008 by Cooke & sand Castle, LLC and SunPower Corp., a manufacturer of high rendement.Le project solar cell uses SunPower.Panneaux Tracker technology rotate on an axis single to follow the Sun, which increases the energy captured until 25 February %.Depuis, Sandia Labs has held a research and development agreement (CRADA) with SunPower to conduct research on the integration of the systems on a large scale in the CRADA grille.Le is funded with approximately 1 million dollars combined U.S. Department of Energy and the SunPower funding should achieve significant results, which will be disseminated by publications joint in the next two years.

For more information on photovoltaic Sandia works, please visit: www.sandia.gov/pv.

Source of the story:

The story above is reproduced (with drafting adaptations by staff at PharmaLive.com) materials provided by Ec/Sandia National Laboratories.

Note: If no author is given, the source is cited for this.


View the original article here

Tuesday, October 26, 2010

Turning waste heat power

University of Arizona physicists have discovered a new way of harvesting waste heat and turning it into electrical power.


Using a theoretical model of a so-called molecular thermoelectric device, the technology holds great promise for making cars, power plants, factories and solar panels more efficient, to name a few possible applications.In addition, more efficient thermoelectric materials would make ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons or CFC, obsolete.


The research group led by Charles Stafford, associate professor of physics, published its findings in the September issue of the scientific journal, ACS Nano.


"Thermoelectricity makes it possible to cleanly convert heat directly into electrical energy in a device with no moving parts," said lead author Justin Bergfield, a doctoral candidate in the UA College of Optical Sciences.


"Our colleagues in the field tell us they are pretty confident that the devices we have designed on the computer can be built with the characteristics that we see in our simulations."


"We anticipate the thermoelectric voltage using our design to be about 100 times larger than what others have achieved in the lab," Stafford added.


Catching the energy lost through waste heat has been on the wish list of engineers for a long time but, so far, a concept for replacing existing devices that is both more efficient and economically competitive has been lacking.


Unlike existing heat-conversion devices such as refrigerators and steam turbines, the devices of Bergfield and Stafford require no. mechanics and no ozone-depleting chemicals. Instead, a rubber-like polymer sandwiched between two metals acting as electrode can do the trick.


Because gold factory exhaust pipes could be coated with the material, less than 1 millionth of an inch thick, to harvest energy otherwise lost as heat and generate electricity.


The physicists take advantage of the laws of quantum physics, a realm not typically tapped into when engineering power-generating technology.To the cost-effective, the laws of quantum physics appear to fly in the face of how things are "supposed" to behave.


The key to the technology related in a quantum physicists call wave-particle EST law: Tiny objects such as electron can behave either as a wave or as a particle.


"In a sense, an electron is like a red sports car," Bergfield said. "The sports car is both a because it's red, just as the electron is both a particle and a wave." The two are properties of the same thing."Electron are less obvious to us than just sports cars."


Bergfield and Stafford discovered the potential for converting heat into electricity when they studied polyphenyl ethers, molecules that spontaneously aggregate into polymers, long chains of repeating units. The backbone of each polyphenyl ether molecule consists of a chain of benzene rings, which in turn are built from carbon atoms.The chain link structure of each molecule acts as a "molecular wire" through which electron can travel.


"We had both worked with these molecules before and thought about using them for a thermoelectric device," Bergfield said, "but we hadn haven't really found anything special about them until Michelle Solis, an undergrad who worked on independent study in the lab, discovered that, low and behold, these things had a special feature."


Using computer simulations, Bergfield then "grew" a forest of molecules sandwiched between two electrodes and exposed the array to a simulated heat source.


"As you increase the number of benzene rings in each molecule, you increase the power generated," Bergfield said.


The secret to the molecules' capability to turn heat into power lies in their structure: Like water reaching a fork in a river, the flow of electrons along the molecule is split in two ounce it encounters a benzene ring with one flow of electrons following along each arm of the ring.


Bergfield designed the benzene ring circuit in such a way that one path the electron is forced to travel a longer distance around the ring than the other. This causes the two electron waves to be out of phase once they reunite upon reaching the far side of the benzene ring.When the waves meet, they cancel each other out in a process known as quantum interference.When a temperature difference is placed across the circuit, this interruption in the flow of electric charge leads to the buildup of an electric potential - voltage - between the two electrodes.


Wave interference is a concept exploited by noise-cancelling headphones: Incoming sound waves are met with counter waves generated by the device, wiping out the offending noise.


"We are the first to harness the wave nature of the electron and develop a concept to turn it into usable energy," said Stafford.


Most to solid state versus spinning hard drive type computer memory, the AU-designed thermoelectric devices require no. moving parts. By design, they are self-contained, easier to manufacture and easier to maintain compared to currently available technology.


"You could just take a pair of metal electrodes and paint them with a single layer of these molecules," Bergfield said."That would give you a little sandwich that would act as your thermoelectric device.""With a solid - state device you don't need cooling agents, you don 't need liquid nitrogen shipments, and you don' t need to do a lot of maintenance."


"You could say instead of Freon gas, we use electron gas," Stafford added.


"The effects we see are not unique to the molecules we used in our simulation," Bergfield said."Any quantum-scale device where you have a cancellation of electric loads will do the trick, as long as there is a temperature difference.""The greater the temperature difference, the more power you can generate."


Molecular thermoelectric devices could help solve an issue currently plaguing period cells harvesting energy from sunlight.


"Solar panels get very hot and their efficiency goes down," said Stafford."You could harvest some of that heat and use it to generate additional electricity while simultaneously cooling the panel and making its own period process more efficient."


"With a very efficient thermoelectric device based on our design, you could power about 200 100-watt light bulbs using the waste heat of an automobile," he said."Put another way, one could increase the car's efficiency by well over 25 percent, which would be ideal for a hybrid since it already uses an electrical motor."


So, next time you watch a red sports car zip by, think of the hidden power of the electron and how much more efficient that sports car could be with a thermoelectric device wrapped around its exhaust pipe.


Funding for this research was provided by the University of Arizona physics department.


Story Source:


The above story is reprinted (with editorial adjustments by PharmaLive.com staff) from materials provided by University of Arizona, via EurekAlert!, a service of AAAS.

Journal Reference:

Justin P. Bergfield, Michelle a. Solis, Charles a. Stafford.Giant Thermoelectric Effect from Transmission Supernodes.ACS Nano, 2010;4 (9): 5314 DOI: 10.1021/nn100490g

Note: If no. author is given, the source is cited instead.


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Monday, October 25, 2010

Dyes on shelf improved solar cells

PharmaLive.com (1 September 2010) - as most of the technologies, working on solar devices gone generational wave. Arrived in bulk silicon-based solar cell built with techniques borrowed heavily from those used to manufacture computer chips. Next came to work on thin materials specifically designed for harvesting energy from the Sun, but still more or less borrowed films in the field of the manufacture of microelectronics. Then came the third generation, described by a researcher and a blogger as "the Wild West," which, among other objectives, aims to build good markets next generation solar cells by relying on wet chemistry decidedly rudimentary.

In an article in the journal of renewable and sustainable energy, which is published by the American Institute of Physics, Ram Mehra Sharda University greater Noida, India, reports success in increasing the capacity to absorb visible light zinc oxide solar cells simply by applying a mix mixed various dyes commonly used in food and industries médicales.En collaboration with colleagues at the University of Delhi, shelf Mehra sprayed cells with a variety of colours in a procedure of dip-so-dry no different from that used for the color of a t-shirt in a machine to wash domestic.

Best result came from a mixture of dyes - including Fast Green food dye for canned vegetables, jellies and sauces and Rose Bengal, used in the diagnosis of eye drops to color the damaged cells and identify injuries to the eye - which together boosted the efficiency of solar cells of zinc oxide by of eight for cent.Mehra and his colleagues say that in the future, mixtures of dye specific could be formulated to make solar cells targeted for specific uses, as custom mixing dyes today gives products as various adhesives, cosmetics and the parfums.Ils write that "by changing the composition of the mixture, its properties change more or less adapted to a particular useful application."

Work on what is known as dye-sensitized solar cell Mehra is funded by the India new and renewable energy.

Source of the story:

The story above is reproduced (with drafting adaptations by staff at PharmaLive.com) materials provided by The American Institute of Physics, via EurekAlert!, a service of AAAS.

Reference of the review:

Development dye with broadband in the visible spectrum for a cell absorbance of solar by effective dye sensitized Rani and renewable and sustainable energy al.Journal 2010; 2 (4): 043103 DOI: 10.1063/1.3463056

Note: If no author is given, the source is cited for this.


View the original article here

Breakthrough in thin solar cells: new insights into puzzle indium/gallium

PharmaLive.com (20 July 2010) - scientists at Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz (JGU) in Mainz is a major breakthrough in their quest for more efficient photovoltaic of thin. Computer simulations designed to study the puzzle of what is called the indium/gallium highlighted a new way to increase the efficiency of thin CIGS solar cells.  Researchers to this day have reached only about 20% efficiency with CIGS cells while 30% performance levels are theoretically possible.

Thin solar cells are gaining an increasing proportion of the solar cell market. They are only a few microns thick, they offer savings on materials and the manufacturing costs.Currently, the highest level of about 20% efficiency is obtained in CIGS thin solar cell, which absorb the light from the Sun through a thin layer of copper, indium, gallium, selenium and soufre.Cependant, efficiency levels achieved so far are far theoretically possible levels.

Research at the University of Mainz, headed by Professor Dr. Claudia Felser team is using computer simulations to investigate the characteristics of CIGS, the chemical formula is Cu(In,Ga) Se (S) 2.This research fits into the comCIGS project, funded by the German Ministry of the environment, nature conservation and nuclear safety (BMU) .IBM Mainz and Schott AG in cooperation with the Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz, the Helmholtz Centre in Berlin of materials and energy and University of Jena in the project to find ways to optimize the CIGS solar cells. Researchers focuses in particular on the Enigma of the baffling scientific indium/gallium years: even if it has been postulated based on calculations that the ratio of indium: optimal gallium should be 30: 70, in practice, the level of maximum efficiency realized exactly reverse ratio of 70: 30.

With the support of IBM Mainz, Christian Ludwig Professor Felser team undertook new calculations to a hybrid approach in which it has used a combination of Monte Carlo simulations and DFT calculations. "DFT calculations to evaluate the energy of local structures of quantum mechanics point vue.Les results can be used to determine the effects of temperature on the length varies widely with Monte Carlo simulations using "Dr. Thomas Gruhn, head of group theory with Professor Felser team, explains the methods used." Christian Ludwig is able to use a central computer for research which was recently given at the University of Mainz by IBM as part of an award for science Research at the University shared (on).

High-temperature production promotes uniformity of material

With the help of simulations, it was discovered and indium gallium atoms are not distributed evenly in the ISM equipment. There is a phase occurs just below the normal temperature of the room in which the indium gallium are completely separated. If material is heated to above this temperature demixing, forming clusters differently the sizes and indium gallium atoms.Higher the temperature, the more homogeneous material devient.Il became apparent gallium rich CIGS is always less homogeneous than rich indium CIGS. This lack of uniformity, the rich material of gallium optoelectronic properties are poorer, which resulted in the levels of the low efficiency of rich CIGS gallium cells - an effect which has now been explained for the first time. Calculations also provide a concrete indication of how best to make CIGS solar cells.If it is produced at high temperatures, the material is significantly more homogeneous.To maintain the desired uniformity, material must then be cooled fast enough.

In practice, it is limited to glass used as a substrate for solar cells was always limited process temperatures heat resistance, but significant breakthrough has recently filed ici.SCHOTT AG has developed a special glass with which the process temperature can be increased at high above 600 ° c.Les cells resulting from this process are considerably more homogeneous, which means that the production of cells with a much higher efficiency level became possible.Mais comCIGS project researchers are already thinking before it. ""We are currently working on large format which should be more efficient than conventional cells in terms of efficiency, solar cells", said Gruhn."The prospects look promising."

The work of scientists in Mainz, conducted in the comCIGS of funded project by the Federal Government, was published in the latest edition of the journal Physical Review Letters.

Source of the story:

The story above is reproduced (with drafting adaptations by staff at PharmaLive.com) materials provided by Universitaet Mainz.

Reference of the review:

Christian Ludwig, Thomas Gruhn, Claudia Felser, Tanja Schilling, Johannes Windeln, Peter Kratzer.Isolation of indium gallium in CuIn_ {x} Ga_ {1 - x} Se_ {2}: ab Initio % u2013Based Monte Carlo study.Lettres physical review 2010; 105 (2): 025702 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.105.025702

Note: If no author is given, the source is cited for this.


View the original article here

Sunday, October 24, 2010

March self-cleaning technology can keep land panels solar free dust

PharmaLive.com (23 August 2010 - search dusting these tables and convenient a chore or a soul? Terror washing Windows? Imagine keeping dust and dirt objects distributed over an area of 25 to 50 football pitches. This is the problem facing companies that deployment of large scale solar and scientific facilities today presented the development of a solution - self-dusting panels solar ? based on technology developed for space missions on March.

In a report to the 240th National Assembly of the American Chemical Society (ACS), August 22, they described how a self-cleaning coating on the surface of the solar cells could increase the efficiency of electricity from the Sun and reduce large-scale solar installations maintenance costs.

"We believe our self-cleaning panels used in areas of high dust and the concentrations of particulate pollutants will strongly benefit from solar energy systems of the output," study Malaysian leader k. Mazumder, Dr. said. " Our technology can be used in both small and large scale photovoltaic systems.To our knowledge, is the only technology for automatic cleaning of dust that requires no water or mechanical movement. »

Mazumder, which is at the University of Boston, said the need for technology grows with the popularity of solar energy. Use of solar or photovoltaic panels has increased 50 percent from 2003 to 2008 and forecasts indicate a growth rate of at least 25% per year in the future. Growth, he said, is focusing on alternative energy sources and the concerns of society at the level of sustainability (using resources today for not compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs).

There are already large scale solar installations in to United States in Spain Germany, Middle East, and Australia India. These facilities are generally located in sunny desert areas where the dry weather and wind would sweep the dust in the air and lay on the surface of the solar panel. Like dirt on a window cleaners, that dust reduced the amount of light that can enter the part of the solar panel, decrease the amount of electricity generated .the company ' water tends to be limited in these areas, making it expensive clean solar panels.

"One-seventh of ounces per square yard dust layer reduces conversion of solar energy by 40%," explains Mazumder. " Arizona dust settles every month about 4 times this amount.Deposition rates are higher in the Middle East, the Australia and the India.»

In collaboration with NASA, Mazumder and colleagues originally developed the technology self-cleaning solar panel for use in the Moon and the March missions. " "Mars is obviously a dusty and dry environment" said Mazumder and solar panels rovers and future missions inhabited and robotic must not succumb to for dust deposition.But neither should the solar panels here on Earth.

Self-cleaning technology involves the deposition of transparent, electrically sensitive material deposited onto a sheet of transparent plastic covering panels of glass ou.Capteurs monitor levels of dust on the surface of the Panel and energize the equipment when the dust concentration reaches a critique.La electric charge level sends a wave of repel dust cascading over the surface of the material lifting far dust and forward edges of the screen.

Mazumder said that less than two minutes, the process removes approximately 90 percent of the dust deposited on a solar panel and requires a small amount of electricity produced by the Commission of cleaning operations.

The size of the current market for solar panels is approximately $ 24 billion, said Mazumder. "Less than 0.04% of world production of energy derived from solar panels, but only four per cent of the deserts of the world has been devoted to harvest solar energy, our energy needs could be completely satisfied worldwide entier.Cette self-cleaning technology can play an important role.»

Source of the story:

The story above is reproduced (with drafting adaptations by staff at PharmaLive.com) materials provided by the American Chemical Society, via EurekAlert!, a service of AAAS.

Note: If no author is given, the source is cited for this.


View the original article here

Quantum entanglement in photosynthesis and evolution

PharmaLive.com (22 July 2010)-, academic debate has been swirling around of the existence of unusual quantum mechanical effects in the most widespread phenomena, including photosynthesis, the process by which organizations convert light into chemical energy.

In particular, physicists have suggested that tangle (the interconnection of two or more objects like photons, electrons or atoms separated in quantum physical space) may occur in photosynthetic plants, particularly in the molecules of pigment, complexes or chromophores.Les quantum effects may explain why the structures are so effective at the conversion of light energy - by 95 percent or more.

In an article in the journal of Chemical Physics, published by the American Institute of Physics, these ideas are put to the test in a novel computer transport simulation of energy in the photosynthetic reaction centre.

Using simulation, Prof. Shaul Mukamel and research senior associate Darius Abramavicius at the University of California, Irvine show that quantum coherence of long-lived is "essential for the storage of quantum information and manipulation," according to Mukamel.Il is possible between chromophores even at room temperature, he said, "can strongly influence the effectiveness of light."

If the existence of such effects can be justified experimentally, he says, this understanding of quantum energy transfer and charge separation lanes can help in the design of solar cells which take their inspiration from nature source.

Source of the story:

The story above is reproduced (with drafting adaptations by staff at PharmaLive.com) materials provided by The American Institute of Physics, via EurekAlert!, a service of AAAS.

Reference of the review:

Darius Abramavicius and Shaul Mukamel.Quantum exciton oscillatory migration in the photosynthetic reaction centre physical chemistry .Journal 2010;(à_paraître) [link]

Note: If no author is given, the source is cited for this.


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Saturday, October 23, 2010

Data mowers sails in order to improve future planetary missions

PharmaLive.com, 20 sept., 2010)-a new golden age of sail can be on the start - in space. Future missions to explore the outer planets could employ "data-mowers" - manoeuvrable equipped with solar, sending enormous amounts of scientific data on land sailing vessel fleets.

Joel Poncy Thales Alenia Space, the technology could be ready in time for support missions to the moons of Jupiter mid-term and will Saturne.Poncy present an assessment of the Clippers data European Planetary Science Congress (EPSC) 2010 in Rome on 20 September 2010.

"Space in proportion to the flash memory may soon store huge quantities of data necessary for global mapping planetary body in high resolution."But a high-res full map of, say, Europa and Titan, would take decades to download from a traditional orbiter, even using very large antennes.Téléchargement data is the driver of major design for interplanetary missions. "We believe that lawnmowers data would be a very effective way to overcome this bottleneck," said Poncy.

Poncy and his team of Thales Alenia Space conducted a preliminary assessment for mission data mower. Their concept is a Clipper flying close to a Planetary Orbiter, download data and flying on the ground, in which the terabytes of data point can be downloaded from the station to the sol.Une fleet data mowers cruise around the solar system could support a suite of planetary missions.

"We looked at the challenges of mission data mower and we believe that it would be ready for launch in late 1990s 2020.Cela means that technology must now be included in the roadmap for future missions, and this is why we present this study EPRC," says Poncy.

The Poncy team evaluated communication systems and monitored devices which would require a clipper database, as well as the conditions for an overview of the and pointing to the precision required for massive data transfers.Recent advances in technology mean that powered by solar sails, which use the photons emitted by the Sun or electric sails, radiation pressure vessel which harness the momentum of the solar wind can now be considered for mid-term missions.The Japanese space agency JAXA, testing a solar sail mission IKAROS.

"Using the Sun as a source of propulsion has the considerable advantage of requiring no propellant bord.Tant equipment not age too and the gear is easy to manoeuvre, the duration of the mission can be very long .the use of lawnmowers data could lead to a precious below ground operation costs - combined with a science and exploration missions downsizing enormous return .the gear space orbit would always download some samples of their data directly on the Earth to discoveries in real-time and interactif.Mais mission operations most of the data is less urgent and is often treated by scientists much tard.Données Clippers could provide service delivery economics in the outer solar system over and over again," said Poncy.

Source of the story:

The story above is reproduced (with drafting adaptations by staff at PharmaLive.com) materials provided by Europlanet Media Centre, via AlphaGalileo.

Note: If no author is given, the source is cited for this.


View the original article here

Friday, October 22, 2010

Find a buckyball in a photovoltaic cell

PharmaLive.com (October 1, 2010) - focusing on polymer photovoltaic cells have some real advantages compared with the currently used semiconductor-based cells. They are easy to make and the materials are cheap. The challenge is to understand how effective cells while keeping low manufacturing cost.

Approach uses a polymer absorbing light with a derivative of a molecule of Fullerene carbon 60, commonly called a buckyball.Pour maximum efficiency, two materials must be present in thin layers of electrodes opposed, but most of the analytical methods cannot distinguish between polymer and sufficiently well to characterize the film buckyball plastic solar cell.

New research in the journal of Chemical Physics describes a technique that analyzes neutron reflection to locate buckyballs in composite material.

"The Neutron scattering is not a new technique, but has not yet be widely applied to this class of materials," explains researcher Brian Kirby's National Institute of standards and technology."In this book, we provide training for researchers wishing to use neutrons to investigate systems book photovoltaic polymer.".

He stressed that, even though Neutron scattering requires a reactor or an accelerator of particles - not typical laboratory - equipment distribution facilities are widely available for industrial and academic users.

Because the polymer and the buckyball are composed primarily of carbon and their locations must be defined in a few nanometers, technical standard did not provide sufficient resolution to describe the location of the result buckminsterfullerènes.En, much research on organic solar cells has been a process of testing and error .the neutron arrive to interact with the polymer and derivative buckyball very differently, leading to a contrast.

"Our goal is more effective research on photovoltaic devices," explains researcher Jon Kiel, from the University of Delaware."Using this technique, we confirmed that particles are not distributed in the ideal way and showed how to evaluate the distribution of new materials."

Source of the story:

The story above is reproduced (with drafting adaptations by staff at PharmaLive.com) materials provided by The American Institute of Physics, via EurekAlert!, a service of AAAS.

Reference of the review:

J. w. Kiel, M. e. MacKay, b. j. Kirby, b. b. Maranville, c. f. Majkrzak.Phase-sensitive neutron reflectometry measures applied in the study of photovoltaic films .the journal of Chemical Physics, 2010; 133 (7): 074902 DOI: 10.1063/1.3471583

Note: If no author is given, the source is cited for this.


View the original article here

Thursday, October 21, 2010

Recharge batteries for electric car to environmentally sound manner

PharmaLive.com (24 July 2010) - Electromobility makes sense only if the car batteries are responsible for electricity from renewable energy sources. But the green electricity supply is not always sufficient. An intelligent charging station can help adapting times cooldown to agree on energy supply and the capacity of the network.

Germany wants one million electric vehicles - powered by energy renewable sources--on the road by 2020. And in ten years, the German Environment Ministry expects "green electricity" 30 percent of all power consumed. Arithmetically speaking it would be possible to achieve CO2 neutral electromobility. But in reality, it is difficult to achieve something.As wind and solar is integrated into the electrical grid, the proportion of electricity which cannot be controlled by simply pressing a button is augmentation.En addition, there is an increasing risk that the increasing number of electric vehicles will trigger extreme waves in the application during rush hour.

"What we need is a smart grid that carries information in addition to power, says Dominik Noeren of the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE..... The structure of the grid has to pass a push system based on the demand for energy of a traction control system based on the output of the production. Opinion of the Noeren "electric cars are better equipped to meet this challenge."Introduced in large numbers, they have the ability to store much energy when average, a car is parked at least 20 hours a day. This is more than enough time to reload the when wind speeds or electricity demand is low.

Developed by Fraunhofer researchers, 'smart' recharge station is a device that allows the electric vehicle recharging when the system load is low and that the share of energy from renewable resources is high. In this way, the peak load can be avoided and the contribution of solar and wind energy fully exploited. "For us, it is important that the final consumers are entirely free to decide when they want to reload.We do not want to suffer disadvantages of controlled recharge batteries in their vehicles, "insists on Noeren."This is why he prefers electricity rates adapted to the situation prevailing in the grid-power - those who are more expensive particularly cheap and peak demand periods when there is a surplus of renewable energy.

Person using the "smart" charging station may then choose between recharging immediately or opt for a cheaper, maybe more, recharge.Si time they go for the second option, everything they need to do is enter in time when their vehicle must be prepared to drive once plus.La charging station supports everything else, the calculation of costs and control rechargement.Par through posting process, the user can monitor the progress of the recharge and see also the costs incurred and the amount of energy used.

Experts will present their device pricing at the Hanover fair from April 19 to 23.

Source of the story:

The story above is reproduced (with drafting adaptations by staff at PharmaLive.com) materials provided by Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft, via EurekAlert!, a service of AAAS.

Note: If no author is given, the source is cited for this.


View the original article here

Sunforce 81096 Solar Shed Light

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Wednesday, October 20, 2010

Wide-field Imaging selected mission Solar Probe Plus

PharmaLive.com (30 September 2010) - the NASA chose field Wide imager for the Naval Research Laboratory to be part of the mission Solar Probe Plus scheduled for launch later in 2018. Solar Probe Plus, a small mean spacecraft car immerse directly into the atmosphere of the Sun around four million miles of surface of the star, our. It will explore a region never no other spacecraft has encountered in an effort to unlock more great mysteries of the Sun.

For decades, scientists know that the Crown or the outer atmosphere is hundreds of times higher that surface visible solar and solar wind speeds up to supersonic speeds as it moves from the Crown. Solar Probe Plus mission, scientists hope to find answers to the questions: why is much warmer than the photosphere solar corona?And how the solar wind is accelerated? the answers to these questions can be obtained only by measures in situ low solar wind in the Crown.

Wide-field imaging of the NRL for solar probe (WISPR) is one of five scientific investigations, selected by NASA for this mission .c ' is the optical survey only because the solar environment is so hot that instruments should be retracted behind a heat shield. Dr. Russell Howard in the NRL, principal investigator, said: "it's a very exciting mission - no other spacecraft has gone never closed - it is as if travellers at the beginning of the Earth, we don't know what to expect, but we know, whatever, it will be spectacular."

The imager is a telescope, which resembles the wide side of the heat shield and will corona of the Sun as the spacecraft 2D images flies around. But as a medical CT, the orbit of the satellite from the corona allow images in three dimensions and the determination of the structure in three dimensions of the Crown.Experience will actually see the solar wind and provide images in three dimensions of clouds and the shocks they are approaching and pass the spacecraft."We are going to be flying by the structures we saw only 100 million kilomètres.Nous will be able to see all phenomena (ejections of mass, banners, shocks, comets and dust) of près.Autres instruments will be capable of measuring the magnetic and electric fields and the plasma itself", says Howard. This investigation complete on spacecraft instruments providing direct measurements of plasma away as well as of the spacecraft - plasma even another sample instruments.

The other four surveys selected for the mission Solar Probe Plus include:

Wind solar electron Alphas and investigations of protons will be specifically rely most abundant particles in the solar wind - electrons, protons, and helium - ions and measure their .the properties ' investigation is also designed to trap some of the particles in a special Cup for direct analysis. (Smithsonian Dominion Observatory Astrophysical in Cambridge, Massachusetts) Field experience will make direct measurements of electric and magnetic fields, course by atmospheric plasma Sunrise shock waves and radio broadcasts. Experience is also a giant dust detector, registering signatures of tension when dust particles LAPAN hit the spacecraft antenna.(Laboratory of space science University of California at Berkeley, California)The integrated Sun science investigation consists of two instruments that have an inventory of items in the atmosphere of the Sun with a mass spectrometer for weighing and sorting ions in the vicinity of the spacecraft.(San Antonio, Texas Southwest Research Institute)The Heliospheric with Solar Probe Plus origins is headed by Mr. Marco Velli, is scientific centre, responsible for the supervision of the spacecraft Assembly mission.It will be adjacent devices do not interfere with one another and guiding global science investigations after the Sunrise atmosphere probe.(Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, NASA)

Solar Probe Plus is part of life with a tête.Le program program NASA mission is designed to understand the aspects of the Sun and space environment land that affect the lives and société.Le program is managed by Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, NASA's supervision in heliophysics Division the direction of the mission of the NASA.La Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory in Laurel, Maryland, is the contractor for the spacecraft.

Source of the story:

The story above is reproduced (with drafting adaptations by PharmaLive.com staff) of materials supplied by the Naval Research Laboratory.

Note: If no author is given, the source is cited for this.


View the original article here

Tuesday, October 19, 2010

Photovoltaic organic GRAPHENE: flexible material only a few atoms thick can provide a good market solar

PharmaLive.com (24 July 2010) - A University of Southern California team produces films for flexible transparent carbon that researchers have great potential for a new breed of solar cells.

"(OPV) organic photovoltaic cells have been proposed as a means to achieve an energy good market because of their ease of fabrication, lightness and compatibility with flexible substrates," writes Chongwu Zhou, Professor of electrical at the USC Viterbi School of engineering, in an article recently published in the revue ACS Nano.

The technique described in the article describes progress towards a new conception of OPV cell has considerable advantages, particularly in the field of Physics of flexibility.

An essential aspect of any photoelectron device of OPV is a transparent conductive electrode in which light can couple with active materials to produce electricity. New studies indicate that GRAPHENE, a highly conductive and highly transparent carbon compound leaves atoms of carbon atoms thick form has a high potential to fill this role.

While the existence of known GRAPHENE for decades, has only been studied since 2004 due to the difficulty of producing high quality and quantity.

Zhou lab reported production on a large scale GRAPHENE films by chemical deposition steam here three years ago. In this process, the USC engineering team creates GRAPHENE ultra thin leaves the first atoms of carbon in the form of GRAPHENE films on a plate of methane nickel deposit.

Then they fix a protective layer of plastic over the GRAPHENE layer thermo and then dissolve the nickel slots in an acid bath.In the last step, attach the GRAPHENE protected plastic foil very flexible polymer, which can then be integrated into a cell of OPV.

The USC team has produced polymer-GRAPHENE sheets ranging in sizes up to 150 cm2 which in turn can be used to create dense arrays of OPV cells flexible.

These devices of OPV convert sunlight to electricity, but not as effectively as cells silicium.La power provided by the Sun one sunny day is approximately 1000 watts per square metre. "For every 1000 watts of solar light that strikes one square of the standard silicon solar cell 14 watts of electricity meter area will be generated," explained Lewis Gomez De Arco, doctoral student and member of the team that built the GRAPHENE OPVs. "Organic solar cells are less efficaces.leur rate conversion for this same watts of thousand of sunlight in the solar cell based on the GRAPHENE is only 1.3 watts.".

But what GRAPHENE lack of OPVs efficiency, they can potentially more at the lowest price and greater flexibility physique.Gomez De Arco think that could potentially be run presses print pose large areas covered good markets, solar cells, much like newspaper presses print newspapers.

"They might be hanging curtains at home or even on fabric and be worn as clothing production energy I can imagine people feed their cell phone or music video device while jogging in the Sun", he said.

USC researchers say open-pollinated varieties GRAPHENE is a major breakthrough at least a critical area on a rival OPV design based on indium-tin-oxide (ITO).Tests of the USC team, ITO cells failed a very small angle bending, while GRAPHENE database cells remain operational after folding repeated stress angles more grandes.Cela would solar cells of GRAPHENE an advantage in certain uses, including printed fabric applications offered by the USC team decided.

Zhou and other researchers of the USC - Yi Zhang, Cody w. Schlenker, Koungmin Ryu and mark e. Thompson, in addition to Gomez de Arco - team are excited by the potential of this technology.

The study concludes that their approach is a significant advance towards the production of transparent conductive electrodes in solar cells. "Heart disease and stroke GRAPHENE meets the criteria most important abundance, low-cost, conductivity, stability, electrode organic film compatibility and flexibility needed to replace us in organic photovoltaics, which may have important implications for organic optoelectronic devices future.»

Source of the story:

The story above is reproduced (with drafting adaptations by staff at PharmaLive.com) materials provided by the University of Southern California, via EurekAlert!, a service of AAAS.

Reference of the review:

Lewis Gomez De Arco, Zhang Yi, Cody w. Schlenker, Koungmin Ryu, mark.e. Thompson, Chongwu Zhou.Films of GRAPHENE continuous, very flexible and transparent by organic chemical for photovoltaic vapor deposition .ACS Nano, 2010; 4 (5): 2865 DOI: 10.1021/nn901587x

Note: If no author is given, the source is cited for this.


View the original article here

Monday, October 18, 2010

New solar prediction system gives time to prepare in advance, storms

PharmaLive.com (2 September 2010) - a new method for prediction of solar storms that could help prevent power outages and communication cost billions of pounds was launched by researchers at the University of Bradford.

Solar storms involve the release of large quantities of hot gas and magnetic forces of the surface of the Sun within approximately one million miles per hour.Next major solar storms expected in 2012-2013 for cycle 11-year-old weather soleil.Un report of the National Academy of Sciences 2008 estimated that dependence on modern electronic communications and satellite means that a major storm could cause economic damage twenty times as much as Hurricane Katrina.

Although large solar flares (coronal mass ejections) is normally take several days to reach the Earth, the greatest saved in 1859 takes only eighteen heures.Les solar flares, which can also cause a significant communication - systems take a few minutes disruption. If the notice is of vital importance to enable measures to be taken to avoid the worst effects of solar activity.

So far, solar weather forecasts have been done manually, with experts looking satellite Sun 2d images and the assessment of the likelihood of future activities.But Centre of the University of Bradford for Visual Computing team created the first prediction system automated online with 3D images generated from the satellite joint NASA / ESA solar and Heliospheric (SOHO) .the system Observatory can be seen at the http://spaceweather.inf.brad.ac.uk

Already in use by NASA and the Agency Space European (ESA), the Bradford automated forecasting of solar activity (ASAP) identifies and classifies sun spots and then feed this information through a model that can predict the likelihood of solar flares. The system is able to predict with precision a solar flare six hours in advance, and team work to achieve similar accuracy for the prediction of major solar flares in the near future.

Drive in Visual Computing, Dr. Rami Qahwaji, who led the research funded by EPSRC, explains: "solar weather forecasts are still in its infancy, probably to the point autour Meanwhile normal forecast was 50 years ago."

"However, our system is a step importante.En creating an automated system that can operate in real time, we open up the possibility for much faster prediction-with enough data - prediction of a wider range of activity even NASA satellite new dynamic solar observatory which is entered into force in may, we have the chance to see the activity of the Sun much more in detail that will further improve our prediction capabilities."

The ASAP model is based on historical data are analyzed to identify trends in the activity of the soleil.M.Qahwaji now is applying for funding more to improve the system so that it can be adapted to work with the Sun last satellite surveillance.

Source of the story:

The story above is reproduced (with drafting adaptations by staff at PharmaLive.com) materials provided by University of Bradford via AlphaGalileo.

Note: If no author is given, the source is cited for this.


View the original article here

How to generate free electricity


Generating electricity Magniwork is a free electricity using magnets and magnetic force system to induce the perpetual motion. No other energy alternate input is needed, such as water, solar cells, wind power, etc. in this system. This energy generator can be built by anyone without any prior experience.

Benefits of Magniwork generator:

* The system requires a small amount of space and works in every home
* How you implement magniwork generator, you can eliminate your invoice 50% power or even completely
Works in all conditions, can work in extreme hot or cold without problem
Necessary to build the magniwork generator hardware is cheap and easily accessible anywhere in the world
* Building a generator Magniwork electricity is simple and even a complete novice would be able to build in less than two hours.

This method has been the subject of an in-depth study and is currently considered as possible to completely solve the energy crisis.The generator is safe and environmentally sound use and produce harmful by-products or generator gaz.Le itself is not flammable or combustible.

Construction of a solar generator or a windmill is expensive to install and power generation is wholly dependent on the Sun or of vent.Comme you do not have solar or wind in this system, it can work under all conditions needed to build a fresh Magniwork generator hardware climatiques.Le you less than $100 .this hardware can easily find at your local store matériel.Le power Bill can be easily reduced from 30 to 50% by equipping your household partially with Magniwork.Vous generator can also supply your household on a scale from this magnetic free energy generator and you wont' must pay a single penny for the electricity company.

Magnetic energy proved to be one of the main sources of green energy! thousands of people around the world have used the generator Magniwork to produce their own electricity and save money.








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Sunday, October 17, 2010

Nanoleaves - SolarBotanic Biomimicry Nanotechnology Trees


SolarBotanic is a company that specializes in a technician emerging biomimicry imitates the nature and uses natural systems inspired by the label. The company specializes in harvest energy from the Sun and the wind as motivated in inventive nanotechnology science. Currently, SolarBotanic focuses on the production of energy, more they have developed an ingenious concept called energy harvesting trees.

These trees synthetic friendly super eco will make the use of renewable energy with wind, Sun's own efficient and respectful workplace collection solar and wind energy.In this theory biomimicry, artificial trees are implanted with Nanoleaves, photovoltaic Nano composite nanothermovoltaic and Nanopiezo energy transforming light, heat and wind electricity friendly éco.Les Nanoleaves transform scale solar any conversion of detectable, infrared and ultraviolet in a unification with piezo electric generators which alter the wind power light giving you effective, cost efficient and seek solutions, providing electrical energy attractive.

Mimicry is developing science trying to solve human problems by promoting intelligent nature.Ce work is accomplished using design of natures, synthetic trees, shrubs, plants and flowers all armed nanoleaf engineering PV cells. Mimesis and Nano technology is intrinsic to the philosophy of the SolarBotanic.

SolarBotanic residential offerings (trees, shrubs, plants etc) will offer 50% more energy than traditional solar systems and will also seek to merge beautifully with your entourage. The SolarBotanic trees will have the capacity to provide an individual House, or can be placed in areas where natural growth from clumps of trees would previously have been used.Solar energy systems can even be positioned on the ground, roof and parking structures.

Renewable energy SolarBotanic contains enormous potential as an additional or substitute for fossil fuels to provide energy markets around the world, in addition to developing countries.The company has received various governmental organizations that provide key resources for research and development and attract investors .this yet brilliant emerging method for trapping groups approaches energy is clean, renewable with a wide range of applications.








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Saturday, October 16, 2010

Researchers, design manufacturing energy innovators harvesting device

PharmaLive.com (8 October 2010) - M. Long that, Assistant Professor of electrical engineering at Louisiana Tech University, reported success in the design and manufacture a device which allows microscopic scale electronics to harvest their own energy waste.

The work was described in an article published in the edition of September in Applied Physics Letters, co-written by Pushparaj Pathak, Tianhua Zhang, Yuan He and Shashi Yadav students.

Developed at Louisiana Tech and described in the document, this technology uses a cantilever manufactured from materials piezoelectric - hardware capable of converting distortions itself into electrical energy - and is covered with a film about a côté.Lorsque Carbon Nanotube film absorbs light energy or heat, it causes cantilever bending and forth several times, which causes the piezoelectric material also to produce electricity long as the light source and heat is active.

Thanks to the bending cyclic activity, operative essentially allow small electronic devices to harvest their own operational energy.

"The great importance of this work is that it offers a new option for continuously harvest solar and thermal energy on a single chip, taking into account features self-reciprocating device during exposure to light or heat radiation" said."this feature could enable us to make perpetual micro/nano and micro/Nano devices and can significantly affect sensory wireless network."

In their experiments, Quebec research team have shown that the device can generate enough energy to function properly some low-power micro and integrated sensors.One of the most unique and innovative energy harvesting system is its ability to "self-reciprocate" - the perpetual energy production without the need to consume external sources of energy.

The researchers state that self-reciprocation occurs from constant cantilever photon absorption and its high electrical conduction and rapid heat dissipation into the phenomenon of self-reciprocation .the environment was systematically observed, not only in the laboratory but also on the ground in the light of the soleil.Cette technology can also collect various types of vibrational energy and wind energy.

"This is really a hybrid technology for energy harvesting", said that."My laboratory has been optimize and make great strides on this technology to improve its effectiveness and its overall performance, showing very promising for this technology."

Quebec believes in the future, the device could be used to power a number of different nano and micro and biomedical implants or located remote sensors and communication nodes.

Source of the story:

The story above is reproduced (with drafting adaptations by staff at PharmaLive.com) materials provided by Louisiana Tech University.

Reference of the review:

Entrant Kotipalli Zhongcheng Gong, Pushparaj Pathak, Tianhua Zhang, Yuan He, Shashi Yadav, Quebec Long light and thermal cellular energy based on carbon nanotube films.Lettres applied physics 2010; 97 (12): 124102 DOI: 10.1063/1.3491843

Note: If no author is given, the source is cited for this.


View the original article here

Friday, October 15, 2010

Thinner than the wavelengths of light solar cells hold huge potential power

PharmaLive.com (28 sept., 2010)-ultra thin solar cells can be absorbed from the Sun more efficiently than thicker Silicon cells, more expensive to be used today, because light behaves differently on scales of a nanometer (one billionth of a metre), Stanford engineers say. They calculate that correctly configures several thin film thickness, a thin layer of organic polymer could absorb as much as 10 times more energy from the Sun than thought possible.

Soft, white bunny adapted room world solar cells and silicon wafers, it turns out that a little roughness might go very far, perhaps to make solar an affordable energy source, say Stanford engineers.

Their research shows light ricocheting around within the film polymer solar cell contains differently when the film is ultra thin. A film is Nano-thin globally and has been gross up to a few can absorb more than 10 times the energy provided by the classical theory.

The key to overcome the theoretical limit lies in the maintenance of the light from the Sun within the right-of-way of the solar cell long enough the maximum quantity of energy, using a technique called "light trap." This is the same as if you were using a hamster running on wheels little electricity your - you want each hamster connect miles as possible before stir-fry and fled.

"Is a photon of light in the solar cell, the better chance the photon can be absorbed, said Shanhui Fan, Professor in electrical engineering .the ' effectiveness with which a given material absorbs the sunlight is critical in determining the overall efficiency of the conversion of energy solaire.Ventilateur is senior author of a paper describing the work published online by the acts of the National Academy of Sciences."

Capture light has been used for several decades with cells Solar Silicon and is performed by the silica surface milling to produce light inbound bounce around in the cell for a period of time after it penetrates, instead of reflecting such right rear it from a mirror.But over the years, regardless how researchers have remained with the technique, they could increase the effectiveness of typical Silicon cells "macroscale" beyond by a certain amount.

Scientists finally realized that there is a physical limit the speed at which light material travel-related.

But light has a dual nature, sometimes behave like a solid particle (photon) and at other times like a wave of energy and fan and postdoctoral researcher Zongfu Yu has decided to explore whether the classical limit capture light true scale nanométrique.Yu scenery is the principal author of the PNAS paper.

"We are all used to think of light in a straight line", said fan. "For example, a beam of light hits a mirror, it bounces and you will see another light Ray .c ' is the typical way we believe in the light of the macroscopic world.

"But if you get off at nanoscales that interests us, hundreds of millionths of a millimetre scale, it turns out that the characteristic wave becomes really important."

A long-wavelength visible light said around 400 and 700 nanometers (billionths of a metre), but even at this small-scale fan, many of the structures that Yu analyzed were comparable to the classical limit theoretical limit is revealed by experience.

"Of the surprises of this work was discovered how robust the classical limit is," said fan.

Only when Yu began studying the behavior of light to deep subwavelength-scale - material significantly less than the wavelength of light – it became clear to him that light may be limited over a longer period, increases the absorption of energy than the conventional limit the large-scale.

"The benefits of nanoscale confinement we have shown here really surprising," said Yu. "Overcome the classical limit opens a new door design highly efficient solar cells.»

Determined using numerical simulations as the most effective structure to capitalize on the benefits of nanoscale confinement Yu was a combination of several types of organic thin film layers.

It has taken sandwiched between two layers of material - called "coating" organic thin film layers - serving layers of containment, when light is passed through from the top in the thin film.At the top of the upper layer of veneer, he placed a rough surface patterned layer designed to send incoming light offshore in different directions that it registered the thin film.

By varying the parameters of the different layers, he could get an increase of 12 times the absorption of light in the thin layer, at the edge of large scale.

Solar cells at the nanoscale offer savings of costs of materials, such as thin films organic polymer and other materials is less expensive than silicon and nano-scale quantities required for the cells are much smaller.

Organic also have the advantage of manufactured in chemical reactions in solution, instead of requiring a high temperature and vacuum treatment is necessary for the manufacture of Silicon.

"" Most research these days looks on different types of materials for solar cells,"says fan."Where it will have a greater impact is in some of the technologies nouvelles.par example, organic cells.»

"If you are right, there is enormous potential associated with it, said fan."

Aaswath Raman, a student of applied physics, also worked on research and is a co-author of the paper.

The project was supported by funding from the University of King Abdullah of science and technology, which supports the Centre for molecular Advanced photovoltaic at Stanford, and by the U.S. Department of Energy.

Source of the story:

The story above is reproduced (with drafting adaptations by PharmaLive.com staff) of materials supplied by The Stanford University .the ' original article was written by Louis Bergeron.

Reference of the review:

Zongfu Yu, Aaswath Raman, Shanhui fan.Basic light nanophotonic trapping solar cells limit .Compte rendering National Academy of sciences, 2010; DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1008296107

Note: If no author is given, the source is cited for this.


View the original article here

Thursday, October 14, 2010

Major obstacle for organic solar cells

PharmaLive.com (17 August 2010) - solar energy is environmentally friendly electricity production environment and is regarded as one of the most attractive options for the future.

The basis of solar energy is absorbing light and then effectively separate electrical loads. Yana Vaynzof, a researcher at the University of Cambridge, reported in the American Institute of Applied Physics Letters of Physics, conjugated polymers are excellent materials for such a system, thanks to their light absorption and conduction properties.Unfortunately, the dissociation of the burden of poor people in these materials tend to inhibit their rendement.Frais photo-induced remain closely linked and recombine until they can be collected for electricity.

With a goal to work around this Vaynzof and his colleagues studied the dissociation of support at the interface between organic polymer in which light is absorbed, and inorganic oxide layer.

"In particular, we discovered molecules self-assembled monolayer interface change translated by increasing the effectiveness of the dissociation of load to 100%," said Vaynzof. "Our measurements revealed that molecular modification alters energy interface landscape so absorbed light in its vicinity is dissociated in costs that are scanned and then far from each other--preventing recombination, much as two balls rolling opposing far from each other on both sides of a hill.»

This has important implications for the organic photovoltaics industry because it offers an interesting solution to one of the biggest problems in the field.

Source of the story:

The story above is reproduced (with drafting adaptations by staff at PharmaLive.com) materials provided by The American Institute of Physics, via EurekAlert!, a service of AAAS.

Reference of the review:

Vaynzof et al. improved separation of carriers charge in organic-inorganic hybrid photovoltaic devices photoinduit .Lettres applied physics 2010; 97 (3): 033309 DOI: 10.1063/1.3464973

Note: If no author is given, the source is cited for this.


View the original article here

Wednesday, October 13, 2010

New method for converting solar pourrait double solar efficiency of solar cells

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PharmaLive.com (Aug 2, 2010)-A new process that simultaneously combines the light and heat of solar radiation to generate electricity could offer more than double the efficiency of existing solar cell technology, say the Stanford engineers who discovered it and proved that it works. The process, called "photon enhanced thermionic emission," or PETE, could reduce the costs of solar energy production enough for it to compete with oil as an energy source.

Stanford engineers have figured out how to simultaneously use the light and heat of the sun to generate electricity in a way that could make solar power production more than twice as efficient as existing methods and potentially cheap enough to compete with oil.

Unlike period technology currently used in solar panels - which becomes less efficient as the temperature rises - the new process excels at higher temperatures.

Called "photon enhanced thermionic emission", or PETE, the process promised to surpass the efficiency of existing period and thermal conversion technologies.

"This is really a conceptual breakthrough, a new energy conversion process, not just a new material or a slightly different tweak," said Nick Melosh, an assistant professor of materials science and engineering, who led the research group."It is actually something fundamentally different about how you can harvest energy."

And the materials needed to build a device to make the process work are cheap and easily available, meaning the power that comes from it will be affordable.

Melosh is senior author of a paper describing the tests the researchers conducted.It was published this week in Nature Materials.

"Just demonstrating that the process worked was a big deal," Melosh said."And we showed this physical mechanism does exist, it works as advertised."

Most period cells, such as those used in rooftop solar panels, use the semiconducting material silicon to convert the energy from photons of light to electricity. But the cells can only use a portion of the light spectrum, with the rest just generating heat.

This heat from unused sunlight and inefficiencies in the cells themselves account for a loss of more than 50 percent of the initial solar energy reaching the cell.

If this wasted heat energy could somehow be harvested, solar cells could be much more efficient.The problem has been that high temperatures are necessary to power heat-based conversion systems, yet solar cell efficiency rapidly decreases at higher temperatures.

Until now, no one had come up with a way to wed thermal and solar cell conversion technologies.

Melosh's group figured out that by coating a piece of semiconducting material with a thin layer of the metal cesium, it made the material able to use both light and heat to generate electricity.

"What we've demonstrated is a new physical process that is not based on standard period mechanisms, but can give you a period-like response at very high temperatures," Melosh said. "In fact, it works better at higher temperatures.""The higher the better."

While most silicon solar cells have been rendered inert by the time the temperature reaches 100 degrees Celsius, the PETE device doesn't hit peak efficiency until it is well over 200 degrees C.

Because PETE performs best at temperatures well in excess of what a rooftop solar panel would reach, the devices will work best in solar concentrators such as parabolic dishes, which can get as hot as 800 degrees c. Dishes are used in large solar farms similar to those proposed for the Mojave Desert in Southern California and usually include a thermal conversion mechanism as part of their design, which offers another opportunity for PETE to help generate electricity, as well as minimizing costs by meshing with existing technology.

"The light would come in and hit our PETE device first, where we would take advantage of both the incident light and the heat that it produces, and then we would dump the waste heat to their existing thermal conversion systems," said Melosh."So the PETE process has two really big benefits in energy production over normal technology."

Photovoltaic systems never get hot enough for their waste heat to be useful thermal energy conversion, but the high temperatures at which PETE performs are perfect for generating usable high temperature waste heat. Melosh calculates the PETE process can get to 50 percent efficiency or more under solar concentration, but if combined with a thermal conversion cycle, could reach 55 or even 60 percent - almost triple the efficiency of existing systems.

The team would like to design the devices so they could be easily bolted on to existing systems, making conversion relatively inexpensive.

The researchers used a metallized semiconductor gallium journal "proof of concept" tests.The efficiency they achieved in their testing was well below what they have calculated PETE's potential efficiency to be, which they had anticipated.Aim they used gallium metallized because it was the only material that had shown signs of being able to withstand the high temperature range they were interested in and still have the PETE process occur.

With the material right - most likely a semiconductor such as gallium arsenide, which is used in a host of common household electronics - the actual efficiency of the process could reach up to the 50 or 60 percent the researchers have calculated.They are already exploring other materials that might work.

Another advantage of the PETE system is that by using it in solar concentrators, the amount of semiconductor material needed for a device is quite small.

"For each device we are figuring something like a six-inch wafer of actual material is all that is needed," Melosh said."So the material cost in this is not really an issue for us, unlike the way it is for large solar panels of silicon."

The cost of materials has been one of the limiting factors in the development of the solar power industry, so reducing the amount of investment capital needed to build a solar farm is a big advance.

"The PETE process could really give the feasibility of solar power a big boost," Melosh said."Even if we don't achieve perfect efficiency, let's say we give a 10 percent boost to the efficiency of solar conversion, going from 20 percent efficiency to 30 percent, that is still a 50 percent increase overall."

And that is still a big enough that it could make solar energy competitive with oil increase.

The research was largely funded by the Global Climate and Energy Project at Stanford and the Stanford Institute for Materials Energy Systems, which is a joint venture of Stanford and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, with additional support from the Department of Energy and DARPA.

Story Source:

The above story is reprinted (with editorial adjustments by PharmaLive.com staff) from materials provided by Stanford University.The original article was written by Louis Bergeron.

Journal Reference:

Jared w. Schwede, Igor Bargatin, Daniel c. Riley, Brian e. Hardin, Samuel j. Rosenthal, Yun Sun, Felix Schmitt, Piero Pianetta, Roger t. Howe, Zhi - Xun Shen & Nicholas a. Melosh.Photon-enhanced thermionic emission for solar concentrator systems.Nature Materials, 01 August 2010 DOI: 10.1038/nmat2814

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Tuesday, October 12, 2010

Forcing all the incompatible elements could give more solar cells

PharmaLive.com (8 Sep., 2010)-in what could be a step towards higher efficiency solar cells, an international team, including the professors at the University of Michigan invalidated the model most commonly used to explain the behavior of a single material called highly incompatible alloys class.

Highly incompatible alloys, which are still at the experimental stage of development, are combinations of elements that are naturally mix of growth techniques Crystal classiques.Le Professor Rachel Goldman comparative to a certain extent milk homogenized, in which fat cream and low fat milk may naturally separate are forced to mix at high pressure.

New mix of methods, such as "molecular beam epitaxy" are allowing researchers combine disparate elements. Results, Goldman, explains, are spectacular milk smooth.

"Highly incompatible alloys have very unusual properties," says Goldman. " You can add a just sprinkle element and radically change electrical and optical alloy properties.»

Goldman is a professor in the departments of materials and engineering and physical science.His team included other physicists U - M and engineers as well as Ireland Tyndall national Institute researchers.

Solar cells convert energy from the sun into electricity by absorbing light. However, different material absorbs light at different wavelengths .the more efficient solar cells are made of multiple materials that can capture a greater part of the electromagnetic radiation in the light of the Sun.The best solar cells are missing today still a material that can use a portion of the infrared light from the Sun.

Team Goldman nitride, gallium arsenide samples highly incompatible alloy which is spiked with nitrogen, which can draw underutilized infrared radiation.

The researchers used the ansf nitrogen to blend with their other molecular beam epitaxy éléments.Épitaxie molecular Jet involves spraying pure samples of incompatible elements and combining them in a vacuum.

Then, researchers measured capacity of the alloy to convert heat into electricity.They wanted to determine if its 10 parts per million of nitrogen were distributed as individual atoms or groupes.Ils found that in some cases, nitrogen atoms had grouped together, unlike this predicts that the dominant model "band anti-crossing".

"We have experimentally demonstrated model anti-crossing of the band is too simple explain the electronic properties of highly incompatible alloys," says Goldman. "It is quantitatively not explain several of their optical and electronic properties Atomic extraordinaires.Amas have a significant impact on the electronic properties of the alloy films.»

If scientists can learn to control the formation of these groups, they could build materials which is most effective in the conversion of light and heat into electricity, Goldman said.

"Availability and thermoelectric efficiency make more convenient produce electricity heat like that produce electric power and motor car" Goldman said.

This research is newly published online in physical b.Le paper is titled "nitrogen composition dependence of electron in gallium arsenide nitride effective mass."

This research is funded by the National Science Foundation, the foundation of science the Ireland and Sun and thermal energy conversion Centre, a centre of research funded by the U.S. Department of Energy energy frontier.

Source of the story:

The story above is reproduced (with drafting adaptations by staff at PharmaLive.com) materials provided by The University of Michigan.

Reference of the review:

T. Dannecker, y. Jin, h. Cheng, v. Gorman, j. Buckeridge, v. Uher, s. Fahy, v. Kurdak, r. Goldman.Of nitrogen composition dependence of electron in GaAs_ {1-x} {x} N_ effective mass .Examen physical B, 2010; 82 (12): 125203 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.82.125203

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Selenium makes more efficient solar cells

PharmaLive.com (August 6, 2010) - call it the anti-sunscreen. This is more or less the description of that several researchers from solar energy wants to find - catch for substances that could be added to the photovoltaic materials to convert more solar energy carbon-free electricity.

Research in Applied Physics Letters, newspaper published by the American Institute of Physics (AIP) describes how solar could potentially be harvested using oxide materials which contain the element selenium.A team at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California, selenium incorporated into oxide of zinc, a relatively cheap material that could be promising for the conversion of solar energy, if she could make it more effective use of solar energy .the ' team concluded that even a relatively low selenium amount, only 9 per cent of the mainly zinc oxide based significantly increased the efficiency of the light absorbing material.

"Researchers are investigating ways to make cheaper and more efficient solar cells.""This result potentially focuses on two of these needs," said author Marie Mayer, a fourth year of California University, Berkeley PhD based Solar Materials Energy Research Group of LBNL, working on new materials for sustainable sources of clean energy.

Mayer explains fractionation of photoelectrochemical, water using the energy from the Sun to cleave the water into hydrogen gas and oxygen, could potentially be the future application more exciting for her travail.tirer party of this reaction is vital to possible production of hydrogen powered, zero-emission vehicles that run hypothetically only water and light the soleil.Comme most researchers, Mayer did not predict hydrogen cars on the roads in a number significant bientôt.Pourtant, the great thing about solar energy, said is that "If you can dream, someone trying to research."

Source of the story:

The story above is reproduced (with drafting adaptations by staff at PharmaLive.com) materials provided by The American Institute of Physics, via EurekAlert!, a service of AAAS.

Reference of the review:

Marie a. Mayer, Derrick t (...) note, Kin Man Yu, Samuel s. Mao, Eugene e. Haller and Wladek Walukiewicz.ZnO1 xSex alloys band structure engineering applied physics .Lettres 2010;[link]

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Monday, October 11, 2010

"Urchin" - in the form of nanostructures laboratory-grown

PharmaLive.com (August 1, 2010) - Empa researchers succeeded in growing nanostructures urchins in the form of minutes of polystyrene beads balls with a simple electrochemical process. The Sea Urchin spines are composed of zinc oxide Nanowires. The structured surface should contribute to increase the efficiency of photovoltaic devices.

Processes lend features new materials are usually complicated and therefore often rather difficult to surprise reproduire.Tellement turned to astonishment when scientists on the new methods that not only produce exceptional results, despite the fact that they use economically priced products starting, but also are not expensive instrumentation.

Just a simple framework for polystyrene

It is exactly this Jamil Elias and Laetitia Philippe engineering materials laboratory of Nanostructures in Thun and Empa have managed to do. They used polystyrene spheres as a kind of scaffolding to create 3D nanostructured semiconductor oxide zinc on various substrates.The two scientists are convinced that the "gross" (nanostructured) but regularly structured surfaces, they produced in this way can be exploited in a variety of electronic and such as solar cells opto-electronic devices and short-wave lasers also, light emitting diodes and field emission displays.

The scientific world reacted promptly.The document in which the results were reported was published in January 2010 in the line edit pointe.Le materials same month, he became downloaded most frequently article in April, he was selected to appear on the inside front cover of the magazine.

The principle behind the process is very simple. Bit of spheres of a few micrometers in diameter are placed on an electrically surface where they are moving in the regular patterns of polystyrene. Polystyrene is good market and ubiquitous – it is widely used as a material for packaging (e.g. yoghurt plastic pots) or as material form extended as a solidified foam insulation.

Hollow bodies with prickles for photovoltaic applications

The tiny beads of polystyrene anchored in this form of how the model on which the NANOWIRES are desposited.Jamil Elias succeeded using electrochemical method which itself was developed for varying conductivity and electrolytic properties polystyrene beads so that zinc oxide is deposited on the surface of the scheduled time of the nanowires microsphères.Au grow this surface, and when this process completes polystyrene is removed, leaving behind spherical hollow structures with spines - little urchins, as is! tight on the underlying substrate, urchins lend it a three-dimensional structure, significantly increasing its size.

Nanostructured surface is predestined for use in photovoltaic applications.The researchers expect that it will be excellent light scattering properties.This means that the surface will be able to absorb more light from the Sun and thus be able to convert energy effective radiated power more efficacement.Dans a project supported by the Federal Switzerland Office of energy (SFOE), Laetitia Philippe and his research team are developing extremely thin absorbers (ATE) for solar cells, these zinc oxide nanostructures.

Source of the story:

The story above is reproduced (with drafting adaptations by staff at PharmaLive.com) materials provided by the science of materials and technology (EMPA) Swiss Federal Laboratories, via EurekAlert!, a service of AAAS.

Reference of the review:

Jamil Elias, Claude Lévy-Clément, Mikhael Bechelany, Johann Michler, Guillaume-Yangshu Wang Zhao Wang, Laetitia Philippe.Urchin-like ZnO Films hollow thin by electrochemical deposition. 2010; advanced materials: NA DOI: 10.1002/adma.200903098

Note: If no author is given, the source is cited for this.


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